Jongmyo is the oldest and most authentic of the Confucian royal shrines to have been preserved. Dedicated to the forefathers of the Joseon dynasty (1392–1910), the shrine has existed in its present form since the 16th century and houses tablets bearing the teachings of members of the former royal family. Ritual ceremonies linking music, song and dance still take place there, perpetuating a tradition that goes back to the 14th century.
종묘는 조선왕조 역대 왕과 왕비 및 추존된 왕과 왕비의 신주를 모신 유교사당으로서 가장 정제되고 장엄한 건축물 중의 하나이다. 종묘는 태조 3년(1394) 10월 조선 왕조가 한양으로 도읍을 옮긴 그해 12월에 착공하여 이듬해 9월에 완공하였으며, 곧이어 개성으로부터 태조의 4대조인 목조, 익조, 도조, 환조의 신주를 모셨다. 56,503평의 경내에는 종묘정전을 비롯하여 별묘인 영녕전과 전사청, 재실, 향대청 및 공신당, 칠사당 등의 건물이 있다. 정전은 처음에 태실 7칸, 좌우에 딸린 방이 2칸이었으나 선조 25년(1592) 임진왜란 때 불타버려 광해군 즉위년(1608)에 다시 고쳐 짓고, 그 후 영조 헌종때 증축하여 현재 태실 19칸으로 되어있다.
영녕전은 세종 3년(1421)에 창건하여 처음에는 태실 4칸, 동서에 곁방 각 1칸씩으로 6칸의 규모이었는데, 임진왜란 때 불타버려 광해군 즉위년에 10칸의 규모로 지었으며 그 후 계속 증축하여 현재 16칸으로 되어 있다.
현재 정전에는 19실에 49위, 영녕전에는 16실에 34위의 신위가 모셔져 있고, 정전 뜰앞에 있는 공신당에는 조선시대 공신 83위가 모셔져 있다.
조선시대에는 정전에서 매년 춘하추동과 섣달에 대향을 지냈고, 영녕전에는 매년 춘추와 섣달에 제향일을 따로 정하여 제례를 지냈으나 현재는 전주이씨 대동종약원에서 매년 5월 첫째 일요일을 정하여 종묘제례라는 제향의식을 거행하고 있으며 제사드릴때 연주하는 기악과 노래와 무용을 포함하는 종묘제례악이 거행되고 있다.
종묘의 주전인 정전은 건평이 1,270㎡로서 동 시대의 단일 목조 건축물로는 세계에서도 그 규모가 가장 큰 건축물로 추정되며, 종묘의 건축 양식은 궁전이나 불사의 건축이 화려하고 장식적인데 반하여 유교의 검소한 기품에 따라 건립된 특수목적용 건축물이다.
종묘는 한국의 일반 건축물과 같이 개별적으로 비대칭구조를 하고 있지만 전체적으로 대칭을 이루고 있으며 의례공간의 위계질서를 반영하여 정전과 영녕전의 기단과 처마, 지붕의 높이, 기둥의 굵기를 그 위계에 따라 달리 하였다.
중국 주나라에서 시작된 종묘제도는 7대까지 모시는 제도로 시작되어 명나라 때에 와서 9묘 제도로 확대 되었는데 중국의 태묘에서는 태실이 9실에 불과하나 한국의 종묘만은 태실이 19칸인 매우 독특한 제도를 가지고 있으며, 정면이 매우 길고 수평성이 강조된 독특한 형식의 건물모습은 종묘제도의 발생지인 중국과도 다른 건축양식이며 서양건축에서는 전혀 그 유례를 찾아볼 수 없는 세계적으로 희귀한 건축유형이다.
종묘제례는 종묘인 의례공간과 함께 의례절차, 의례음식과 제기, 악기와 의장물, 의례음악과 의례무용 등이 조화되어 있으며, 1462년에 정형화된 형태를 500년이상 거의 그대로 보존하고 있다는 점에서 현재 세계에서 가장 오래된 종합적 의례문화라고 할 수 있다.
종묘제례와 종묘제례악에 나타난 의례 절차, 음악, 무용 등은 중국의 고대문명을 바탕으로 형성된 하, 은, 주 시대의 의례문화에 기원을 두고 있을 뿐만 아니라 동양의 고대문화의 특징과 의의를 거의 그대로 보존하고 있기 때문에 동양 고대문화를 연구하기 위한 귀중한 자료로 활용될 수 있는 문화유산 중의 하나이다.
종묘제례악은 기악, 노래, 춤으로 구성되는데 세종때 처음짓고 세조때 다듬은 보태평과 정대업 22곡을 연주하고 그 동작이 단순하면서도 장엄한 것이 특징인 육일무 등의 춤을 춘다. 신라향가나 고려가요가 오늘날 가사만 전하여 지는데 비하여 종묘제례악은 500년 전의 선율을 오늘날까지 그대로 전하고 있어 그 의의가 매우 크다.
종묘는 조선시대의 전통건물로서 일반건축이 아닌 신전건축임에도 불구하고 건축의 보편적 가치를 지니고 있어 많은 현대 건축가들의 연구대상이 되고 있으며 종묘의 뛰어난 건축적 가치는 동양의 파르테논이라 칭하여지고 있을 만큼 건축사적 가치가 크다.
종묘는 사적 제125호로 지정 보존되고 있으며 소장 문화재로 정전(국보 제227호), 영녕전(보물 제821호), 종묘제례악(중요무형문화재 제1호), 종묘제례(중요무형문화제 제56호)가 있으며, 1995년 12월 유네스코 세계유산으로 등록되었다.
종묘는 제왕을 기리는 유교사당의 표본으로서 16세기 이래로 원형이 보존되고 있으며, 세계적으로 독특한 건축양식을 지닌 의례공간이다. 종묘에서는 의례와 음악과 무용이 잘 조화된 전통의식과 행사가 이어지고 있다.
등록기준 :세계문화유산기준 (Ⅳ) (Ⅳ) 가장 특징적인 사례의 건축양식으로서 중요한 문화적, 사회적, 예술적, 과학적, 기술적 혹은 산업의 발전을 대표하는 양식
Statement of Significance
The Committee decided to inscribe this site on the World Heritage List on the basis of criteria (i) and (iv) as a masterpiece of Far Eastern Buddhist art. The complex that it forms with Bulguksa Temple is an outstanding example of the religious architecture of the region and of the material expression of Buddhist belief.
Construction of Seokguram Grotto, located on the south-eastern slope of Mount Toham, facing the East Sea, began in AD 751, the 10th year of the reign of Silla King Gyeongdeok, by the Prime Minister KIM Daeseong, and completed in 774, the 10th year of the reign of King Hyegong. It is recorded that it was originally known as Seokbulsa Temple. It is built from granite and features 39 Buddhist engravings on the main wall and the principal sculpture of the Buddha in the centre.
The grotto consists of an antechamber, a corridor, and a main rotunda. The Eight Guardian Deities are carved in relief on the walls of the rectangular antechamber, four on either side. Two figures of Vajradhara stand on either side of the entrance to the corridor leading from the antechamber to the main rotunda. The Four Guardian Kings are carved in pairs on either side of the narrowed part of the corridor. There are two octagonal stone pillars, one on either side of the entrance to the main rotunda, where the main Buddha stands slightly off-centre. The walls to the left and right of the entrance are covered with relief images of two Devas, two Bodhisattvas and the Ten Disciples. In the middle of the wall behind the main Buddha there is an exquisite wall carving of an eleven-faced Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva, the Bodhisattva of Compassion.
The stones beneath each carved figure on the walls of the antechamber and the main rotunda are also carved. At the time of construction there was a marble stupa in front of the Avalokitesvara, but it was removed during the Japanese colonial period. A large circular lotus flower is set in the wall above the Avalokitesvara behind the main Buddha, creating the illusion of a halo for the Buddha when seen from the front. There are 10 niches lining the upper wall on either side of this lotus flower: originally each contained images of Bodhisattvas or Buddhist devotees, but two are now missing. The vaulted ceiling is made from dressed stones that meet in another carved lotus flower at the top of the main hall.
The main Sakyamuni Buddha figure is 3.45 m high, and set on a lotus flower-shaped pedestal. The hair is tightly curled and there is a distinct usnisa, the protuberance on the top of the head symbolizing Supreme Wisdom. Beneath the broad forehead the eyebrows are shaped like crescent moons and the half-closed eyes gaze towards the East Sea. The Buddha's robe is slung over the right shoulder; the details of the robe covering the left arm and chest are realistically depicted. The Buddha is portrayed cross-legged with the hands in the bhumisparsha mudra position, the gesture with which the historical Buddha summoned the Earth as witness to his realization of Enlightenment. All the other figures - Vajradharas, Guardian Kings, Devas, Bodhisattvas, Disciples and Guardian Deities - are elaborately carved with great attention to naturalistic detailing.
The main Buddha of Seokguram is a masterpiece that perfectly depicts the moment Sakyamuni attained enlightenment, and Bulguksa Temple is an ambitious architectural work through which Silla revealed the world of Buddhism to the terrestrial world. Built at the same time Seokguram was constructed, the construction of Bulguksa Temple was also initiated and supervised by Prime Minister Kim Dae-seong. With deep filial piety, Kim Dae-seong built Bulguksa Temple in memory of his parents in the present life and the cave temple of Seokguram for his parents of the previous life.
The realization of Buddha Land in the mundance world was a long-cherished dream in Silla, and the people of Silla believed that their kingdom was this very land. Even the name, Bulguksa, indicates the great meaning it had to the people of Silla. It literally means Temple of Buddha Land. In other words, Bulguksa is a terrestrial paradise of the land of Buddha.
The grounds of Bulguksa were seen as a utopia of Buddhism itself in the mundance world, and are divided into three areas with wooden buildings on raised stone terraces. They are Birojeon (Vairocana Buddha Hall), Daeungjeon (Hall of Great Enlightenment) and Geungnakjeon (Hall of Supreme Bliss).
They represent the terrestrial and the two celestial abodes: The Pure Land of Buddhism, that is, the terrestrial of Vairocana Buddha; the paradise of Amitabha Buddha; and the World of Endurance of Sakyamuni.
Birojeon, Geungnakjeon and Daeungjeon and areas on stone terraces are posed as the land of Buddha; the lower areas below these terraces are the mundance world. These two worlds are connected by two beautiful bridges known as Cheongun/ Baegun (Bridge of Blue Clouds/ Bridge of White Clouds), and Yeonhwa/ Chilbo (Bridge of Lotus Flowers/ Bridge of Seven Treasures). The stone terraces and bridges, Seokgatap (Pagoda of Sakyamuni), and Dabotap (Pagoda of Bountiful Treasures) in front of the Daeungjeon attest the fine masonry of Silla. Like Seokguram, Bulguksa is built of granite, which is very hard and difficult to fashion. It is said that there originally was a lotus pond called Gupumyeonji, which was fed by waters from Mt. Toham. Although the pond no longer exists, traces of the water channel from Mt. Toham remain on the stone terrace.
During the Japanese invasion of Korea in 1592, Bulguksa suffered extensive damage. The wooden buildings were all destroyed by fire, but the stone terraces and stairs, stone pagodas, lanterns, and gilt bronze statues of Buddha survived. The buildings were later partially restored and Bulguksa as we see today is a modern restoration done from 1969 to 1973. At this time, the site of Bulguksa Temple was excavated and studied, before construction began. However the complex is not nearly of such great scale as during the Silla period.
In the main courtyard in front of Daeungjeon, the center of Bulguksa, are two pagodas, Dabotap and Seokgatap, standing on an east-west axis. Since the Unified Silla period, it was standard practice to erect a pair of pagodas of the same appearance in front of the main building of a temple, but in this case each of these pagodas are different.
The two pagodas reflect a story in the Lotus sutra. When Sakyamuni was giving sermons on Vulture Peak, the Pagoda of Bountiful Treasures rose from the ground, and Dabo, a Buddha who had already achieved enlightenment, appeared riding the Pagoda to attest to the validity of Sakyamuni's sermons. Dabo and Sakyamuni then sat side-by-side within the tower. Dabotap represents the Dabo Buddha, and the other represents Sakyamuni.
Also noteworthy is Mugu jeonggwang dae darani-gyeong (Great Dharani Sutra of Immaculate and Pure Light) in a paper scroll 6.7 centimeters wide and 6.2 meters long. It was discovered in the second level of Seokgatap in 1966. Dated to the 8th century, this is the oldest known sutra printed from carved wooden blocks in the world.
Construction of Sokkuram Grotto began in AD 751, the tenth year of the reign of Shilla King Kyongdyok, by Kim the Prime Minister, Tae-song and completed in 774, the tenth year of the reign of King Hyegong. lt is recorded that it was originally known as Sokbulsa Temple. There are no subsequent documentary references until the mid Choson period, when it is recorded that it was restored in 1703 and again in 1758.
Source: Advisory Body Evaluation
The Jongmyo Shrine is an outstanding example of the Confucian royal ancestral shrine, which has survived relatively intact since the 16th century, the importance of which is enhanced by the persistence of an important element of the intangible cultural heritage in the form of traditional ritual practices and forms.
Jongmyo is the royal ancestral shrine of the Joseon dynasty (1392-1910). Taejo, founder of the kingdom, transferred the seat of government to Hanyang (present-day Seoul) in 1394 and ordered the building of Jongmyo. The spirit tablets of four generations of Taejos ancestors were moved there from Gaeseong. Subsequently additional buildings were added to receive the spirit tablets of later Joseon kings, bringing the total of rooms in the former to 16 in Yeongnyeongjeon and 35 rooms in Jongmyo, respectively.
Jongmyo is situated in valleys and surrounded by low hills, artificial additions created to reinforce the balance of natural elements on the site as defined in traditional geomancy. Jongmyo is composed of three sets of buildings centred on Hyangdaecheong, a single building, on the main shrine, and the Hall of Eternal Peace, an auxiliary shrine. The main features are as follows: Changyeopmun (the main gate), built from thick wooden planks; Mangmyoru, a wooden structure with a tiled roof where the king waited before the ancestral rituals; Gongmingdang, the shrine to the Goryeo King, built by the Joseon King Taejo; Hyangdaecheong, the storage building for ritual utensils; Jaesil, a main hall and two wings, where participants waited for the rites to take place.
Jongmyo Jeongjeon is surrounded by rectangular walls with gates to the south, east and west. The rectangular inner court platform is floored with rough granite slabs. Three sets of steps ascend the front of the stone base and there are smaller sets of steps at the far ends on either side. Jeongjeon itself is a wooden structure, both the left and the right flanking chambers. The two wings jut out into the woldae. It is divided into several rooms, with the open corridors in front and the 19 inner shrine rooms, separated by wooden doors. The shrine rooms are divided into cubicles, for the 49 spirit tablets lodged there, and antechambers, which are in turn separated by screens. The gabled roof is supported by simple wooden brackets. The main entrance is reserved for the spirits and no one is allowed to pass through it. The east gate is used by the king and the smaller west gate by the musical performers.
Chilsadang houses seven deities, including the gods of palace gates, kitchens, roads, halls and rooms, entrances and exits, and those who die of epidemic diseases; Gongsindang houses the spirit tablets of 83 loyal subjects of the Joseon kings. Jonsacheong is where the ritual utensils and offerings used in the rites are prepared; Subokbang is the ground-keeper's residence, when the food offered during the rituals is examined.
Yeongnyeongjeon is the building in which the spirit tablets of kings not recognized worthy of being honoured indefinitely were lodged when they were removed after a set time from Jeongjeon. It is situated in a rectangular compound entered by three gates. It is built on a rectangular platform, paved with thin slabs of granite. The building has two side wings flanking the main chamber, different in size. Wooden brackets at the tops of the round pillars support the eaves of the gabled roof.
Chongmyo is the royal ancestral shrine of the Joseon dynasty (1392-1910). Taejo, founder of the Choson Kingdom, transferred the seat of government to Hanyang (today's Seoul) in August 1394 and ordered Ch'oe Won, his director of government administration, to start building Chongmyo in December the same year. It was completed ten months later and named T'aemyo. The spirit tablets of four generations of T'aejo's ancestors were moved there from Kaesong.
During the fust year of the reign of Sejong (1419) an auxiliary building, Yeongnyeongjeon, was built to the west of Taemyo to receive the spirit tablet of the second Joseon king, Chongjong. Four shrine chambers were added to this structure in 1547 because of shortage of space.
Ali the buildings were destroyed by fire in May 1592, during the Hideyoshi invasions.- King Sorüo took the Chongmyo tablets with him when he fled before the Japanese, but the ancestral shrine was destroyed. Restoration was completed in 1608, on his retum to his capital.
More rooms were added to Yongnyongjon in 1667 and to Chongjon in 1778 and again in 1836, bringing the total of rooms in the former to eight and the latter to nineteen. Subsequent additions have brought them to 16 and 35 rooms respectively.
Chongmyo Cherye, the memorial services conducted each year at Chongjon, also constitute a heritage of great antiquity and significance in terms of intangible culture. They incorporate music, song, and dance, and owe their origins to court music imported from China by King T'aejo at the end of the 14th century.-