Cultural Assets

The Jikji

 

  1. Korean

직지심체요절

「백운화상초록불조직지심체요절」(이하 불조직지심체요절이라 함)은 백운화상이 75세였던 고려 공민왕 21(1372)년에 노안을 무릅쓰고, 선도(禪徒)들에게 선도(禪道)와 선관(禪觀)의 안목을 자각(自覺)케 하고자 함은 물론, 선풍(禪風)을 전등(傳燈)하여 법맥(法脈)을 계승케 하고자 저술한 것으로서, 그 제자 석찬과 달담이 비구니 묘덕의 시주를 받아 청주 흥덕사에서 1377년 7월에 금속활자로 인쇄하였다.

「불조직지심체요절」은 「경덕전등록(景德傳燈錄)」, 「선문염송집(禪門拈頌集)」등의 사전부(史傳部)의 여러 불서(佛書)를 섭렵하고 역대의 여러 불조사(諸佛祖師)의 게(偈), 송(頌), 찬(讚), 가(歌), 명(銘), 서(書), 법어(法語), 문답(問答) 중에서 선(禪)의 요체(要諦)를 깨닫는데 필요한 것만을 초록(抄錄)하여 찬술(撰述)한 것이 그 주된 내용이다.

「불조직지심체요절」의 ‘직지심체’는 “직지인심 견성성불(直指人心 見性成佛)”이라는 수신오도(修身悟道)의 명귀에서 채록한 것으로 ‘참선하여 사람의 마음을 직시(直視)하면, 그 심성이 곧 부처님의 마음임을 깨닫게 된다’는 것이다. 본서는 우리나라의 학승(學僧)들이 대교과(大敎科)를 마치고 수의과(隨意科)에서 공부하는데 사용되는 대표적인 학습서인 것이다.

「불조직지심체요절」의 찬자(撰者)인 백운화상(白雲和尙)은 백운이 그의 호이며, 법명(法名)은 경한(景閑)이다. 고려 충렬왕 24(서기1289)년에 전라도 고부(古阜)에서 출생하여, 공민왕 23(1374)년에 여주(驪州)의 취암사(鷲巖寺)에서 77세를 일기로 입적(入寂)하신 분이다.

화상은 어려서 출가하여 불학(佛學)을 익히고 수도하는 데에만 전념하였다. 후에 백운화상은 중국 호주(湖州) 하무산(霞霧山) 천호암(天湖庵)의 석옥청공(石屋淸珙)화상으로부터 직접 심법(心法)을 전수 받았으며,인도의 지공(指空) 화상에서도 직접 법(法)을 물어 도(道)를 깨달았던 것이다. 귀국한 뒤에는 태고 보우국사(太古普愚國師, 1301∼1382)나 혜근 나옹화상(惠勤懶翁和尙, 1320 ∼ 1376)과 더불어 대선사(大禪師)로서 어깨를 나란히 하였다. 뿐만 아니라 황해도 해주(海州)의 안국사(安國寺)에서 11년 동안이나 선림(禪林)의 정업(精業)에 전력하였고, 뒤에는 해주의 신광사(神光寺)에서 후학들을 계도(啓導)하였다

「불조직지심체요절」이 해외로 유출된 경위는 조선시대 고종 때 주한 불란서대리공사로 서울에서 근무한바 있는 꼴랭 드 쁠랑시(Collin de Plancy)가 수집해간 장서에 포함되어 있던 것이 그후 골동품수집가였던 앙리베베르(Henry Vever)에게 넘어갔으며 그가 1950년에 사망하자 유언에 따라 프랑스국립도서관으로 이관되어 오늘에 이르고 있다. 이 책은 상·하 2권으로 되어 있으나, 현재 하권만이 유일하게 프랑스에 소장되어 있으며, 하권은 39장으로 이루어져 있는데, 첫째장은 없고 2장부터 39장까지 총 38장만이 보존되고 있다.

흥덕사(興德寺)의 창건년대와 규모는 알 수 없으나, 「불조직지심체요절」. 하권 간기에 고려 우왕 3년(1377)에 청주 흥덕사에서 금속활자로 책을 인쇄하였음을 명기(宣光七年丁巳七月 日 淸州牧外興德寺鑄字印施)하고 있는데, 이것은 독일의 구텐베르그보다 70여년이나 앞선 것으로 1972년 유네스코가 지정한 "세계 도서의 해"에 출품되어 세계 최고(最古)의 금속활자본으로 공인된 것이다.

그러나 흥덕사지의 위치를 확인할 수 없던 중 발굴조사 결과 출토된 청동으로 만든 북(靑銅禁口)와 청동불발(靑銅佛鉢)에 "西原府 興德寺(서원부 흥덕사;서원은 신라때 청주의 이름)"라는 글자(名文)가 음각되어 있어 이곳이 바로 『백운화상초록불조직지심체요절』을 간행한 흥덕사임을 입증하게 된 것이다

이 책은 금속활자를 이용하여 인쇄하였는데, 인쇄술을 보다 편리하고 경제적이며 교정을 쉽게 하여 주었고 이 모든 것은 책의 신속한 생산에 공헌하였다. 또한 활자 인쇄술에 적합한 먹, 즉 기름먹을 발명하는 계기가 되었으며, 한국이 혁신한 실용적인 활판 인쇄술은 동양 인쇄사에 지대한 영향을 끼쳤고, 유럽등지로 전파된 것으로 보인다.

이 책은 이러한 가치를 인정받아 2001년 9월 유네스코세계기록유산으로 등록되었다.

  1. English

Buljo jikji simche yojeol(Hereafter Jikji) contains the essentials of Zen Buddhism compiled by priest Baegun in late Goryeo period.

The teaching of many Buddhas and Great priests was carefully chosen so that everyone can come to the core of Zen. Other names of this work are Jikji simche yojeol, Jikji simche, Jikji simgyeong, and Jikji. This book was printed at the old Heungdeok-sa(???) temple in Cheongju city, using movable metal types in July 1377. Priest Seokcan and Daldam helped the publication while female priest Myodeok offered a donation for the project. Jikji was printed in two volumes; the first volume has not been found yet and the second volume has been kept in the National library of France.

While some earlier metal type printings were mentioned in the old Korean books, this book, Jikji, is the world's oldest movable metal type printing evidence available and shows us an important technical change in printing history of humanity

Buljo jikji simche yojeol was published in the seventh lunar month of 1377. Examining the forwards by Yi Saek and Seong Sa-dal and Baegun's summary, it is apparent that Priest Baegun inherited the ideas in the book when he was 54 years old from his teacher Seogok Cheonggong, a Zen(Buddhist Mediation) master. Priest Baegun wrote the book to continue and transmit the ideas of his teacher. He composed it in September 1372 at the age of 75 while staying on Mt. Seongbul, and his wish was that his disciples propagate the ideas contained in the book.

Contents of the writings: Jikji comprises historical biographies such as Gyeongdeok jeondeungnok and Seonmun yeomsong, which were to be studied by the student monks after completing the study of the teachings necessary to understand the essence of Zen, including the Buddha's sayings from his last moments, letters of praise, letters and poems on drawings, educational phrases and sentences, songs, writings, orthodox teachings, and dialogues. The key words of the title of the name of the book, "jikji simche" were derived from the famous phrase about attaining enlightenment through the practice of Zen, "Jikji insim gyeonseong seongbul" meaning the attainment of an enlightened state by direct appeal to the mind. It also means that when we come to see through Zen what the mind is, then we come to understand that mind to be that of the Buddha. Because human nature is pure from the beginning, when the mind sees that it is pure and practices asceticism, one becomes a part of Buddha and one's mind becomes that of the Buddha. In other words, when one is enlightened through Zen, one's mind becomes the Buddha. Three hundred and seven verses in 154 groups were recorded in Jikji. The old priest put together a book of high standard by selecting only the essentials of Zen to teach and propagate to pupils.

Method of typecasting and publishing of Jikji: The origin of metal type printing during the Goryeo dynasty is still not correctly known. However, Jikji has characteristics which are possible only through metal typesetting. Especially when we take into consideration the fact that there are no pairs of identical type on a single printed sheet whereas the type identical to that on one page found on another, it is clear that the foundry sand-casting method which enables the production of the necessary number of a type in reverse form through the use of one model character was not used. Accordingly, the type matrices for casting the types used to print Jikji were carved one by one, and there is the possibility that wood, metal, and glue were used as materials. Considering that type carved directly on metal plate can not be regarded as movable metal type, that there are specks which are characteristic of cast metal type, and that the phrase "printed using metal types" is recorded at the end of the book, beeswax-casting is the only type-casting method that could have been used. Although Jikji is a crude book, printed with metal type at a temple, it has great significance in that it was printed at a local temple when Korea was under Mongolian dominance, thus maintaining the Goryeo Dynasty tradition of printing with movable metal type. Jikji was printed with metal type in 1377 at the Heungdeok-sa Temple, when there was a great demand for learning the Zen way of Priest Baegun. However, the number of copies was limited because of the methods of typesetting and printing. When the original objective of propagation proved difficult, xylographic printing of the book, together with The Analects of Priest Baegun was carried out the following year (1378) at the Chwiam-sa Temple, paid for with lay donations. Accordingly, it might be said that the edition of Jikji printed with movable metal type has its significance in enabling us to understand the characteristics of the history of printing using metal types during the Goryeo dynasty, while the woodblock printing of the same book had value in propagating the Zen way of Baegun.

Restoration of metal type of Jikji: A metal type professional Mr. O Guk-jin who was designated by the Korean government as important intangible cultural properties 101, restored the types of Jikji in 1996. The method of casting he used then was the beeswax casting method. He first experimented exhaustively with both methods, i.e., foundry sand casting because he found that no other method could restore the types used in printing Jikji. Hence, there can be no other opinions about the type casting method used for the book