한국의 역사마을 하회와 양동
안동하회마을은 조선 중기인 1600년대부터 풍산류씨들이 모여 주택과 서원 등을 건축하고 마을을 조성한 풍산류씨의 집성촌이다. 혈연을 중심으로 한 집성촌은 전국 여러곳에 형성되었으나, 오늘날에는 대부분 소멸되거나 변형되어 그 본래의 모습을 찾아보기 힘들다. 그러나 안동하회마을은 그 원형을 그대로 보존하고 있을 뿐만 아니라 양반의 주거문화를 대표하는 양진당과 충효당, 북촌댁과 서원건축의 백미인 병산서원과 같 은 옛 건축물들은 빼어난 건축미를 자랑하고 있다. 하회마을은 주변 자연경관과 잘 조화를 이루고 있으며 낙동강의 넓은 강류가 마을 전체를 동·남·서 방향으로 감싸고 있어 풍수지리적으로 '연화부수형' 또는 '태극형'이라는 명국으로 알려져 있다. 이곳에는 풍산류씨 겸암파(풍산류씨 14대손인 겸암 류운룡의 대종가 계열)와 서애파(조선 선조때 명재상 서애 류성룡의 지파)가 살고 있다. 마을은 중앙 길을 중심으로 북촌과 남촌으로 크게 나뉘어져 있는데, 북촌의 대표적인 주택으로는 양진당(보물 제306호)과 북촌댁 (중요민속자료 제84호)이, 남촌의 대표적인 주택은 충효당(보물 제414호)과 남촌댁(중요민속자료 제90호)이 있다.
이 마을에는 크고 작은 양반집들과 노비들의 주택인 가랍집들, 그리고 원지정사와 병산서원과 같은 독특한 건축들이 자연친화적인 마을구성과 건축배치를 이루면서 산재해 있고, 별신굿과 별신굿때 쓰이던 하회탈, 부용대에서 벌어지는 줄불놀이 같은 독특한 민간놀이가 전승되고 있다. 또한 징비록(懲毖錄, 국보 제132호), 군문등록(軍門謄錄, 보물 제160호) 등을 비롯하여 서애선생의 수많은 전적과 교지들이 영모각과 충효당에 소장되어 있다.
양동마을은 신라의 고도(古都) 경주에서 형상강을 따라 동북쪽으로 16km에 위치하고 있으며 중요민속자료 제189호로 지정된 민속마을이다.
이 마을은 조선시대 초기에 입향(入鄕)한 이래 지금까지 세거(世居)해온 월성손씨와 여강이씨가 양대문벌을 이루고 있다. 양동마을에는 월성손씨의 종가인 서백당과 여강이씨의 종가인 무첨당을 비롯하여 관가정, 향단 등 조선시대 양반주택들과 하인들이 살았던 초가집들, 그리고 이향정, 심수정 등의 정자와 서당인 강학당 등 조선시대를 대표하는 옛 건물들이 조선시대부터 이어온 민속과 함께 잘 보존되고 있다.
마을의 지세는 산등성이와 골짜기의 구성이 勿자형으로 작은 산등성이와 골짜기에는 반가(班家)들이 비교적 높은 위치에 자리잡고, 그 아래에는 가랍집들이 위치하고 있어 조선시대 신분제도의 일면을 엿볼 수 있는 공간적 특징을 보여주고 있다.
현재 양동마을은 번성 당시의 마을 구성을 잘 간직하고 있으며, 풍수지리적으로 좋은 위치(穴자 형상의 위치)에 배치된 주요 건물들은 모두 보물(무첨당 등 3건)과 중요민속자료(수졸당 등 11건)로 지정되어 있다. 현재 이곳은 중요민속마을 지정 이후 엄격한 고증에 의해 보수·관리되고 있어 본래의 모습을 가장 잘 간직하고 있다.
14-15세기 조성된 한국의 대표적인 전통 마을로서 자연과 조화를 이루는 조선시대 유교적 전통 사상을 잘 반영한 경관 속에 전통 건축 양식을 잘 보존하고 있음. 또한 조선시대 유교 교육의 중심지답게 유교적 삶의 양식과 전통문화를 현재까지 잘 계승하고 있음.
등록기준 :세계문화유산기준 (III), (lV)
- (III) 독특하거나 지극히 희귀하거나 혹은 아주 오래된 유산
- (IV) 가장 특징적인 사례의 건축양식으로서 중요한 문화적, 사회적, 예술적, 과학적, 기술적 혹은 산업의 발전을 대표하는 양식
Their layout and location - sheltered by forested mountains and facing out onto a river and open agricultural fields – reflect the distinctive aristocratic Confucian culture of the early part of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910). The villages were located to provide both physical and spiritual nourishment from their surrounding landscapes. They include residences of the head families, together with substantial timber framed houses of other clan members, also pavilions, study halls, Confucian academies for learning, and clusters of one story mud-walled, thatched-roofed houses, formerly for commoners. The landscapes of mountains, trees and water around the village, framed in views from pavilions and retreats, were celebrated for their beauty by 17th and 18th century poets.
Outstanding Universal Value
The two villages of Hahoe and Yangdong are located in the south-eastern region of the Korean peninsula, the heartland of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), that ruled the Korean Peninsula for more than five hundred years. There is a distance of 90km between them.
Sheltered by forested mountains and facing out onto rivers and open agricultural fields, Hahoe and Yangdong in their landscape settings are seen as the two most representative historic, clan villages in Korea. They were founded in the 14th-15th century and subsequently expanded to their present size and composition in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Their layout and siting, reflect the distinctive aristocratic Confucian culture of the early part of the Joseon Dynasty.
The villages were located to provide both physical and spiritual nourishment from their surrounding landscapes. They include the residences of the head families, together with substantial timber framed houses of other clan members, also pavilions, study halls, Confucian academies for learning, and clusters of one storey mud-walled, thatched-roofed houses, formerly for commoners. The landscapes of mountains, trees and water around the villages, framed in views from pavilions and retreats, were celebrated for their beauty by 17th and 18th century poets.
Within the two villages, the outstanding ensembles of buildings, their siting, planning and building traditions, are exceptional reflections of the social and cultural systems of the Joseon Dynasty, of the particularly distinctive system of clan villages that is specific to this area, and of the way these evolved over five centuries.
Criterion (iii): Hahoe and Yangdong are two of the best preserved and representative examples of clan villages, a type of settlement characterizing the early part of the Joseon Dynasty. In their siting, planning and building traditions the two villages are an exceptional testimony to the Confucianism of the Joseon dynasty, which produced settlements that followed strict Confucian ideals over a period of some five hundred years.
Criterion (iv): The village ensembles of Hahoe and Yangdong reflect the impact of the Joseon Dynasty that profoundly influenced the development of the Korean peninsula over some five centuries. The villages, and particularly the ensemble of yangban and commoners’ houses, and their overall and individual planning, reflect the precepts of this Dynasty in terms of its social structures and cultural traditions as well as its power and influence and its literary, and philosophical traditions.
The main attributes of the clan village such as houses of the nobility and commoners, formal spatial layout, study halls and academies, are present within the nominated boundaries of both villages. In Hahoe, the Byeongsanseowon Confucian Academy is 4km to the east and in Yangdong village the Oksanseowon and Donggangseowon Confucian Academies are some 8km and 4km respectively from the village and not spatially linked to it.
The harmonious landscape setting, including the river, forests and mountain that inspired writers is present in Hahoe, although partly in the buffer zone, and is present to a lesser degree of completeness in Yangdong. Here the Allakcheon stream, the Angang fields, (both of which are in the view from the Suunjeong Pavilion) and the upper reaches of the mountain are not included in the nominated area.
The property does not suffer from other than minimal adverse effects of development and has not suffered from neglect. However the setting of Yangdong village has been compromised to a degree by new infrastructure, such as bridges, roads and a railway.
In terms of the clan villages the way the attributes truthfully reflect Outstanding Universal Value relates to the ability of the buildings, village layout, setting and dynamic clan rituals to express the way the village houses are an exceptional manifestation of the Joseon political and cultural regimes and the way they were shaped by Confucianism. ICOMOS considers that villages express well the hierarchical layout of the settlements, and the expressions of the influential clan nobility and scholars.
Where authenticity has been slightly compromised is in the use of materials for some of the restoration projects the remodeling that has taken place, particularly in Hahoe, where some of the buildings have been modified for new uses. These interventions at time blur the link with Joseon period materials, techniques and planning, and the ability of the buildings to contribute to outstanding universal value.
Requirements for Protection and Management
Both Hahoe Village and Yangdong Village have been protected under the National Heritage Protection Act since 1984. For Hahoe village the boundary of the Cultural Heritage Protection Area covers the shared buffer zone, and, in some instances, even extends the protection to the wider setting. For Yangdong village the boundary of the Cultural Heritage Protection Area covers the village area and a small portion of the buffer zone, and the outlying property, except Donggangseowon Confucian Academy, and a small portion of the buffer zone (except in the case of Dongnakdang House). The forests are preserved under the framework of the Cultural Heritage Protection Law – just like the buildings and houses in the villages. Within the villages, six houses in Hahoe (out of 124) and two houses in Yangdong (out of 149) are individually designated as National treasures. In summary, at the state level, there is protection, through designation, of both Hahoe and Yangdong Villages, and all associated places, except for Donggangseowon Confucian Academy, and individual protection for eight houses.
This national protection has been strengthened by the following national directives or guidance: Mid- and Long-term Vision of the Cultural Heritage Policy: Cultural Heritage 2011 (2007); Detailed Implementation Plan for the Conservation, Utilization and Comprehensive Maintenance of Folk Villages (2004); Hahoe Village Design Guidelines (2007); and Yangdong Village Design Guidelines (2007).
At provincial level there are overall provisions for conservation, ranging from the definition of cultural heritage to their conservation, management and utilization. Donggangseowon Confucian Academy is protected at provincial level.
At local level, for Hahoe Village there are Ordinances of Andong City for Protecting Cultural Heritage (2004) which includes provisions for conservation and management. There is also a Master Plan for Hahoe Village Renovation (2002); an Urban Master Plan for Andong City toward 2016 (1998) and a Hahoe Tourism Complex Development (Creation) Plan (2003 ).
For Yangdong village there is a Master Plan for Yangdong Village Renovation (2002); Long-term Comprehensive Development Plan for Gyeongju City for 2006-2020 (2006); and a Development Master Plan for Creation of Historic and Cultural City of Gyeongju for 2005-2034 (2004). Within the villages, six houses in Hahoe (out of 124) and two houses in Yangdong (out of 149) are individually designated as National treasures.
Additionally, the entire area of properties and buffer zones and the immediate surroundings are under a series of government controls, i.e. Control Area, Agriculture and Forest Area or Natural Environment Protection Area.
In summary, at the state level, there is protection, through designation, of both Hahoe and Yangdong Villages, and all associated places, except for Donggangseowon Confucian Academy, and individual protection for eight houses.
This national protection has been strengthened by the following national directives or guidance: Mid- and Long-term Vision of the Cultural Heritage Policy: Cultural Heritage 2011 (2007); Detailed Implementation Plan for the Conservation, Utilization and Comprehensive Maintenance of Folk Villages (2004).
There is a need to ensure that detailed guidance on restoration techniques and materials is adhered to for all buildings in order to maintain authenticity of individual buildings. In order to prevent visuals intrusions in the landscape, there is a need to wider active conservation to include forest areas, trees, river margins and the overall visual landscape. As the villages are very well visited, there is also a need to ensure that cultural tourism strategies respect an agreed carrying capacity of buildings and the tolerance of residents. And of utmost importance is the need to ensure the highest standards of fire protection and fire response are in place.
Clan villages developed and flourished in the Joseon dynasty which consolidated its absolute rule over Korea, encouraged the adoption of Confucian ideals in Korean society, (which had been introduced to Korean Peninsula in the first century), absorbed Chinese culture, and, through prosperity founded on trade, fostered classical Korean culture, science, literature, and technology.
Although the concept of villages planned to harmonise with the local topography, through the implementation of pungsu principles, had appeared in the preceding Goryeo period, it was during the Joseon Dynasty that those who had become small and medium sized land owners and local government officers rose into yangban or nobility clans, and then played a central role in the founding or enlargement of new settlements, based on Confucian principles. These clan villages for the nobility usually housed members of one or two clans and existed alongside fortified, walled towns where government and county officers lived who were of lower status and from diverse backgrounds. The clan villages also produced civil and military officials for the government.
Hahoe village is an example of a new yangban settlement being formed at the end of the Goryeo Dynasty by three clans, Heo, An and Ryu.
In the 16th century the Ryu clan produced distinguished politicians and scholars and this is reflected in the architecture of the village, particularly the study halls.
The new village flourished but by the mid 17th century the Heo and An clans left and Hahoe village became the clan village of the single Ryu clan. The village continued to expand in the 18th and 19th centuries. During the 1980s, in line with the majority of Korean villages, young people migrated to the towns and cities and in 1991 the elementary school was closed. However there are some signs of a reversal of this trend with two newly built traditional houses in the 1990s.
Yangdong village is an example of a settlement that grew into a village of the nobility through the marriage of one of its daughters to the son of the Son clan. In turn his daughter married into the Yi clan. These two clans produced several distinguished figures in the 16th century.
The village expanded around the clan branches.
In the early 20th century a railway line was built to the village and a school constructed. In the 1940s a Buddhist Temple was constructed, and a decade later a Church. In the 1970s a bridge was erected over the Allakcheon Stream and in 1971 the pattern of arable land on the Angang Field was restructured and a community warehouse built.
In the 1980s, the village did not suffer such a severe decline in population as some other villages.
Source: Advisory Body Evaluation